Collective false memories
The Bologna station clock, subject of a collective false memory
Similar false memories are sometimes shared by multiple people.
One such false memory is that the name of the Berenstain Bearswas once spelled Berenstein.
Another example is false memories of a 1990s movie titled Shazaam starring the comedian Sinbad as a genie; such false memories may be the product of a confluence of factors, such as a performer wearing a genie costume during a TV presentation of Sinbad the Sailor movies in 1994, and a similarly named 1996 film Kazaam featuring a genie played by Shaquille O'Neal.
A 2010 study examined people who were familiar with the clock at Bologna Centrale railway station, which had been damaged in the Bologna massacre in August 1980. In the study, 92% falsely remembered that the clock had remained stopped since the bombing; in fact, the clock was repaired shortly after the attack but was again stopped 16 years later as a symbolic commemoration.
In 2010 this phenomenon was dubbed the "Mandela Effect" in reference to false memories of the death of South African leader Nelson Mandela in the 1980s (when in fact, he died in December 2013).
Most commentators say that these false memories are shaped by similar factors affecting multiple people,such as social reinforcement of incorrect memories, or false news reports and misleading photographs influencing the formation of memories based on them.