Fun Open Thread

Discussion in 'General Discussions' started by Mad_Monster_Party, Feb 18, 2017.

  1. Doctor Omega

    Doctor Omega Moderator

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    Evidence of existence
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    The distribution of fossils across the continents is one line of evidence pointing to the existence of Pangaea.
    Fossil evidence for Pangaea includes the presence of similar and identical species on continents that are now great distances apart. For example, fossils of the therapsid Lystrosaurus have been found in South Africa, India and Antarctica, alongside members of the Glossopteris flora, whose distribution would have ranged from the polar circle to the equator if the continents had been in their present position; similarly, the freshwater reptile Mesosaurus has been found in only localized regions of the coasts of Braziland West Africa.[19]

    Additional evidence for Pangaea is found in the geology of adjacent continents, including matching geological trends between the eastern coast of South America and the western coast of Africa. The polar ice cap of the Carboniferous Period covered the southern end of Pangaea. Glacial deposits, specifically till, of the same age and structure are found on many separate continents that would have been together in the continent of Pangaea.[20]

    Paleomagnetic study of apparent polar wandering paths also support the theory of a supercontinent. Geologists can determine the movement of continental plates by examining the orientation of magnetic minerals in rocks; when rocks are formed, they take on the magnetic properties of the Earth and indicate in which direction the poles lie relative to the rock. Since the magnetic poles driftabout the rotational pole with a period of only a few thousand years, measurements from numerous lavas spanning several thousand years are averaged to give an apparent mean polar position. Samples of sedimentary rock and intrusive igneous rockhave magnetic orientations that are typically an average of the "secular variation" in the orientation of magnetic north because their remanent magnetizations are not acquired instantaneously. Magnetic differences between sample groups whose age varies by millions of years is due to a combination of true polar wander and the drifting of continents. The true polar wander component is identical for all samples, and can be removed, leaving geologists with the portion of this motion that shows continental drift and can be used to help reconstruct earlier continental positions.[21]

    The continuity of mountain chains provides further evidence for Pangaea. One example of this is the Appalachian Mountains chain, which extends from the southeastern United States to the Caledonides of Ireland, Britain, Greenland, and Scandinavia.
     
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  2. Doctor Omega

    Doctor Omega Moderator

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    Rifting and break-up
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    Animation of the rifting of Pangaea
    There were three major phases in the break-up of Pangaea. The first phase began in the Early-Middle Jurassic (about 175 Ma), when Pangaea began to rift from the Tethys Ocean in the east to the Pacific in the west. The rifting that took place between North America and Africa produced multiple failed rifts. One rift resulted in a new ocean, the North Atlantic Ocean.[22]

    The Atlantic Ocean did not open uniformly; rifting began in the north-central Atlantic. The South Atlantic did not open until the Cretaceous when Laurasia started to rotate clockwise and moved northward with North America to the north, and Eurasia to the south. The clockwise motion of Laurasia led much later to the closing of the Tethys Ocean and the widening of the "Sinus Borealis", which later became the Arctic Ocean. Meanwhile, on the other side of Africa and along the adjacent margins of east Africa, Antarctica and Madagascar, new rifts were forming that would lead to the formation of the southwestern Indian Ocean that would open up in the Cretaceous.

    The second major phase in the break-up of Pangaea began in the Early Cretaceous (150–140 Ma), when the minor supercontinent of Gondwana separated into multiple continents (Africa, South America, India, Antarctica, and Australia). The subduction at Tethyan Trenchprobably caused Africa, India and Australia to move northward, causing the opening of a "South Indian Ocean". In the Early Cretaceous, Atlantica, today's South America and Africa, finally separated from eastern Gondwana (Antarctica, India and Australia). Then in the Middle Cretaceous, Gondwana fragmented to open up the South Atlantic Ocean as South America started to move westward away from Africa. The South Atlantic did not develop uniformly; rather, it rifted from south to north.

    Also, at the same time, Madagascar and India began to separate from Antarctica and moved northward, opening up the Indian Ocean. Madagascar and India separated from each other 100–90 Ma in the Late Cretaceous. India continued to move northward toward Eurasia at 15 centimeters (6 in) a year (a plate tectonic record), closing the eastern Tethys Ocean, while Madagascar stopped and became locked to the African Plate. New Zealand, New Caledonia and the rest of Zealandia began to separate from Australia, moving eastward toward the Pacific and opening the Coral Sea and Tasman Sea.

    The third major and final phase of the break-up of Pangaea occurred in the early Cenozoic (Paleocene to Oligocene). Laurasia split when North America/Greenland (also called Laurentia) broke free from Eurasia, opening the Norwegian Sea about 60–55 Ma. The Atlantic and Indian Oceans continued to expand, closing the Tethys Ocean.

    Meanwhile, Australia split from Antarctica and moved quickly northward, just as India had done more than 40 million years before. Australia is currently on a collision course with eastern Asia. Both Australia and India are currently moving northeast at 5–6 centimeters (2–3 in) a year. Antarctica has been near or at the South Pole since the formation of Pangaea about 280 Ma. India started to collide with Asia beginning about 35 Ma, forming the Himalayan orogeny, and also finally closing the Tethys Seaway; this collision continues today. The African Plate started to change directions, from west to northwest toward Europe, and South America began to move in a northward direction, separating it from Antarctica and allowing complete oceanic circulation around Antarctica for the first time. This motion, together with decreasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, caused a rapid cooling of Antarctica and allowed glaciers to form. This glaciation eventually coalesced into the kilometers-thick ice sheets seen today.[23] Other major events took place during the Cenozoic, including the opening of the Gulf of California, the uplift of the Alps, and the opening of the Sea of Japan. The break-up of Pangaea continues today in the Red Sea Riftand East African Rift.


     
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  3. Doctor Omega

    Doctor Omega Moderator

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    The Royal Family


    Prince-Harry-Meghan-Markle-engagement-t.jpg


    True love forever?

    Or doomed from the start?

    And will this saga be better than any of the Disney Star Wars movies?




     
    #103 Doctor Omega, May 25, 2018
    Last edited: Nov 8, 2018
  4. Doctor Omega

    Doctor Omega Moderator

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    #104 Doctor Omega, May 25, 2018
    Last edited: May 25, 2018
  5. Doctor Omega

    Doctor Omega Moderator

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  6. Doctor Omega

    Doctor Omega Moderator

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    A host of famous - and some now infamous - faces in the IT'S A ROYAL KNOCKOUT TOURNEMENT (1987)















    And the post-mortem.......



     
  7. TheSowIsMine

    TheSowIsMine What an excellent day for an exorcism
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    This is my new kitten, his name is Jonesy.
    [​IMG]
     
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  8. Mad_Monster_Party

    Mad_Monster_Party Sandbox Chief Commissioner

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    That is so cool!!!!!!!!!!!!!
     
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  9. Mad_Monster_Party

    Mad_Monster_Party Sandbox Chief Commissioner

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    Let's keep the good times going! :emoji_alien:
     
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  10. Mad_Monster_Party

    Mad_Monster_Party Sandbox Chief Commissioner

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    Happy 4th of July!
     
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  11. Mad_Monster_Party

    Mad_Monster_Party Sandbox Chief Commissioner

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    I hope everyone had a great weekend!!!!

    :emoji_man_dancing:
     
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  12. BJS

    BJS Member: Rank 1

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    National Missing Persons Week 2018 PSA (AU)


    While it is powerful, you have to admit they are trying to manipulate the audience emotionally. Using a father and young daughter as the ones left behind, rather than a father and young son. It'd be interesting to see how the dialogue would've come off had they had a different kid in the role. Particularly the bit about wanting a new car. Using a long-haired girl and putting a bow in her hair is also designed to get a specific reaction from the audience that they wouldn't get with a short-haired butch tomboy. To borrow an incident from my fantasy novel, i'm only surprised that they didn't put her in a pink satin dress with white underskirt.

     
    #112 BJS, Aug 23, 2018
    Last edited by a moderator: Nov 8, 2018
  13. Doctor Omega

    Doctor Omega Moderator

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    Our SOCIAL MEDIA World


    shutterstock_573033001-e1507281330260.jpg


    Good?

    Bad?

    Did you ever even get on board?

    Or, if you did, will you ever jump ship for a return to a simpler life?











     
    #113 Doctor Omega, Sep 5, 2018
    Last edited: Nov 7, 2018
  14. The Seeker

    The Seeker Member: Rank 6

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    It’s good in that you can keep in touch with anyone, anywhere. You can share anything. The bad is, sometimes, you share too much, or somebody shares something widely that you only meant a small group of people to see (that happened to me) or someone can hack your identity or you can get into political or religious arguments you otherwise wouldn’t have and create hard feelings or ....
     
  15. BJS

    BJS Member: Rank 1

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    Margaret and Seana Tapp murders


    https://www.theage.com.au/national/...ase-that-got-away-from-all-20100618-ymx2.html

    Mother and daughter killed in their home in suburban Melbourne, Australia in 1984. Both were strangled, young Seana (Shawn-uh, not See-Anna) had been viciously sexually assaulted.

    Whoever it was, Margaret was just the obstacle he had to eliminate to be able to rape Seana. He was a paedo and had little sexual interest in adult women.

    I'm a little upset with those in the media who keep calling Seana "See-Anna" instead of "Shawn-uh". It's such disrespect

    A lot of people should know that Seana was bright enough that when most kids her age are in Grade 3, she'd been upgraded to Grade 4 at Wattle View Primary School.
     
    #115 BJS, Sep 15, 2018
    Last edited by a moderator: Nov 7, 2018
  16. Doctor Omega

    Doctor Omega Moderator

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    1506473844146.jpg
     
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  17. Mad_Monster_Party

    Mad_Monster_Party Sandbox Chief Commissioner

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  18. Mad_Monster_Party

    Mad_Monster_Party Sandbox Chief Commissioner

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    I know it’s a few days late, but I hope everyone is having a great start to November!!
     
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  19. Doctor Omega

    Doctor Omega Moderator

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    Yes, all going well MMP. Hope you are doing fine too. :emoji_alien:
     
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  20. Mad_Monster_Party

    Mad_Monster_Party Sandbox Chief Commissioner

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    Well that sounds great!!!

    And everything is going well over here. So far a very good November. I hope it’ll last!!:emoji_alien:
     
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